Gram-positive bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Neisseria spp., Bordatella pertussis.
Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by interacting close to the peptidyl transferase site of the 50S ribosomal subunit. The main binding sites are within domains II and V of the 23S rRNA.
Ketolides AUC:MIC ratio strongly correlates with efficacy.
Cmax: 1.9 mcg/mL; Half-life: 1 hour; Protein binding: 70%; Table 4
Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Cardiovascular System: atrial arrhythmias, flushing, hypotension, bradycardia
Central Nervous System: headache, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, vertigo
Endocrine: increased sweating
Hepatic: hepatitis, abnormal LFTs, fulminant hepatitis
Ocular: blurred vision, diplopia
Respiratory: respiratory failure in myasthenia gravis patients
Musculoskeletal: worsening of myasthenia gravis symptoms
Bacterial Sinusitis: 800mg daily for 5 days (no longer FDA approved)
Chronic Bronchitis: 800mg daily for 5 days (no longer FDA approved)
Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 800mg daily for 7-10 days
Renal Failure: For the patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) equal to or greater than 30 ml/min, no adjustment is necessary. In patients with CrCl < 30, data suggests dosage adjustments should be made, yet specific guidelines are not yet available.
Hepatic failures: Dosage adjustment is not required. Telithromycin must be given with caution given very rare episodes of hepatitis.
Precautions: telithromycin can prolong the QT interval; avoid with drugs known to be associated with cardiac toxicities, jaundice/hepatitis can occur, history of myasthenia gravis
Interactions of major severity include drugs that have additive effects on QT prolongation. These drugs are contraindicated in patients taking telithromycin. Although not comprehensive, these agents represent the more common agents used clinically: antipsychotics, astemizole, cisapride, clarithromycin, antiarrhythmic agents, cotrimoxazole, dolesetron, droperidol, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, isradipine, isoflurane, phenothiazines
Interactions of major severity include drugs that are substrates of CYP-3A4. Telithromycin inhibits this enzyme, resulting in increased serum levels of the following drugs and others metabolized by CYP-3A4: atorvastatin simvastatin, dihydroergotamine, ergot derivatives midazolam.
Category C: Risk unknown. Human studies inadequate.
Therapeutic: WBC, culture and sensitivity, temperature
Toxicity: Liver function tests, EKG, signs of hypersensitivity, dizziness