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Candida species



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Tables and Figures

Table 1: Medically Significant Candida spp.

Table 2:  Characteristics of the Major Candida spp.

Table 3:  Susceptibility of Candida spp. to Antifungal Agents

Table 4:  Interpretive Breakpoints for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing

Table 5. Summary of Key Points for Selection of Therapy

Table 6: Therapy for Vaginal Candidiasis: Topical Agents

Table 7: Therapies of Choice for Invasive Candidiasisa



Logan McCool: The Discovery and Naming of Candida

Simi Vincent: Origin of the Names of Species of Candida

Review Article: Singh N, Treatment of opportunistic mycoses: how long is long enough? Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3:703-08

Review ArticleSchaudin C, Stoodley P, Kainovic' A, O'Keeffe T, Costerton B, Robinson D, Baum M, Ehrlich G, Webster P.  Bacterial Biofilms, Other Structures Seen as Mainstream Concepts.  Microbe 2007;2:231-237.

Review Article:  Adhikari P, Mietzner T.  Cell Mediated Immunity. 2008.

Review Article:  Efflux Pumps as a Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance. 2008

Review Article: Raad, I., Hanna, H. and Maki, D. Intravascular Catheter-related Infections: Advances in Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. The LANCET Infectious Diseases 2007; Vol.7, Issue 10, 645-657.

Guidelines:  Pappas PG, et al.  Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Candidiasis: 2009 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:503-535.

Betts RF, Nucci M, et al. A Multicenter, Double-Blind Trial of a High-Dose Caspofungin Treatment Regimen versus a standard Caspofungin Treatment Regimen for Adult Patients with Invasive Candidiasis. Clin Inf Dis. 2009;48:1676-84.

Golnaz J, Zuravleff J.  Retinitis and Endophthalmitis. 2007.

Gram stain, 2008

Hamza et al. Single-Dose Fluconazole versus Standard Therapy for Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15;47(10):1270-6.

Harrington A.  Differentiation of Candida albicans from non-albicans yeast directly from blood cultures by Gram stain morphology.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007;26:325-329.

Legrand F, et al. Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:696-702.

Pappas PG, et al.  Micafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:883-893.

Reboli A, Rotstein C, Pappas P, Schranz J, Krause D, Walsh T, Anidulafungin Study Group. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med 2007;357(13):1347.

Ruan SY, Lee LN, et al. Candida glabrata fungaemia in intensive care units. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007 Nov 28 [Epub ahead of print]Sun RL, et al.  Clinical characteristics and outcome of Candida keratitis.  Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143:1043-1045.

Van Hal et al. Candida dubliniensis Meningitis as Delayed Sequela of Treated C. dubliniensis Fungemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 February; 14(2): 327329.

Zaoutis T. et al. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Caspofungin for the Treatment of Documented Candida or Aspergillus Infections in Pediatric Patients. PEDIATRICS. 2009 Mar;123(3):877-84.

Colombo AL, et al.  Caspofungin Use in Patients with Invasive Candidiasis caused by Common Non-albicans Candida Species: Review of the Caspofungin Database.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;Mar 15 [Epub ahead of print]




John H. Rex, M.D., Jack D. Sobel, M.D., William Powderly, M.D.




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